Evacuation of Danang - by Marius Burke                          



By: Captain Marius Burke. Jr.

This article was first printed in the Air America® Log Oct,Nov,Dec 1989 Volume 6 No.4

The Danang Fiasco really began on the 17th of March 1975. Reports had been received regarding heavier than normal unfriendly activity between Hue and Quang Tri. The more information that was received, the less inclined I was to launch the scheduled ICCS (International Control Commission Services) helicopter to Quang Tri that morning. Contact was made with the Indonesian Air Operations representative of the ICCS to discuss the matter. He blandly informed me that a chopper was not required. Apparently the military situation had gotten so bad that all the ICCS delegates had abandoned Quang Tri the night before and had gone by road to Hue. They had not considered it necessary to inform us of that situation before we might have sent our aircraft to an area that had likely been overrun!

Reports continued to come in regarding activity north of Hue which indicated the presence of North Vietnamese tanks in the area but there was little other apparent activity. Some pressure was expected to be put on Hue but the word put out by the customer was that it was nothing to be alarmed about. On the I 18th of Match, the first enemy shelling was experienced at Hue. The following day I recommended to the OSA customers that perhaps their representatives in Hue should be pulled out each night. They disagreed. Thus, the tone for future events was set

At about 7 PM on the 19th, I received a call from Roy Lewis stating that there was an emergency situation at Hue due to heavy shelling and reported nearby tank activity. He wanted helicopters sent up to evacuate his people. Since our normal flying activities were limited to daytime operations, this was truly considered an emergency. Two crews were organized and we departed Danang about 8 PM. Upon arrival about 40 minutes later we had to wait for some time since not everyone was ready to go. Finally, everyone was ready and we headed back to Danang. Some ground fire was received on the return trip but it could not be determined if it was friendly or unfriendly. Actually irrelevant, I guess.

Upon returning to Danang, a request was received from the ICCS delegation to evacuate their personnel from Hue. We again launched, arriving at Hue around 10:30 PM. We waited for almost 45 minutes for passengers to show up. None did. At that point we were at low fuel state and had to depart. I was informed the folloving day that they had not completed packing! Obviously, their sense of urgency was for less than ours. Crew members involved in this mission included Captains Gehring, Lannin, Hitchman and Mechanics Gil and Pacariem.

On, 20 March the situation at Hue appeared to be less tenuous. Customers were going to Hue in, the morning and returning to Danang in the evening. However, it was noted that refugees were filtering south in ever increasing numbers. This exodus increased as shelling of Hue began once more. Finally, on the 23rd of March, an urgent call was received to evacuate all remaining customers due to heavy enemy activity in the area. This was accomplished. Hue was considered lost as of the evening of the 23rd.

On the morning of the 24th a call was received from the Polish representative of the ICCS wanting us to schedule a flight to Hue that afternoon. To digress a little... the ICCS was composed of representatives from Poland and Hungary who essentially represented the North Vietnamese interests and the Indonesians and Iranians who represented the South Vietamese/U. S. interests. Their mission was supposedly to monitor the "cease fire" or "peace" accords. This involved transporting them behind enemy lines by airplane or helicopter. Air America®, interestingly enough, had this contract. The dedicated aircraft were painted with the ICCS logos, etc. When we flew those aircraft we were supposed to wear different insignia and hats. Pilots and crews were interchangeable between ICCS operations and our "regular" missions. The Indonesian representatives were responsible for scheduling all aviation operations for the ICCS. Thus, when the Polish representative wanted to schedule a flight, he was informed that had to be done by the Indonesian representative. In any event, I asked him if he was aware that Hue was now under control of tile enemy. He viewed me quizzically and then I woke tip realizing that I was essentially speaking to the enemy. After some additional discussion he informed that I didn't understand his request and that they were willing to pay us to fly them in our company aircraft. He then started talking about how much they were willing to pay. He was told that this was not a negotiating point. Nevertheless, upon departure he indicated that a call would be made later with a better offer. It didn't happen.

The weather had been very marginal over the past few days; ceilings were running from 20 to 100 feet with rain throughout the area. One helicopter was launched for Quang Ngai (about a 30 minute flight south of Danang) early in the morning for normal administrative purposes. The windshield wipers burned out en route and because of the adverse weather, the crew aborted the mission and returned to Danang. A few hours later word was received that Quang Ngai was under attack. An evacuation of all appropriate personnel was necessary immediately.

Two aircraft were launched in an attempt to get through the weather. A low level flight over the ocean was undertaken and three shuttles with personnel and records were made between Quang Ngai and Chu Lai which was considered a secure area. Quang Ngai was written off that afternoon.

On the 25th a recon flight was made with the objective of finding alternative safe landing destinations in the event an evacuation of Danang became necessary. The closest satisfactory safe area appeared to be the islands approximately ten miles off the coast of Danang which were occasionally used as bombing practice ranges. However, the Consulate's contention was that the security at the islands was questionable, even at that time and my plans to position fuel there were quashed.

From the 23rd on I had begun spending 24 hours a day at the base in order to ensure that at least one helicopter and crew would be available in the event problems arose and/or ground traffic in and out of the air base gates was stopped. On the night of the 23rd the base was hit by rockets. However, no other incoming was experienced until the day after the final mass evacuation took place on the 29th.

It soon became obvious that our nonessential personnel needed to be evacuated from Danang. Although extra company aircraft were coming up to take people out, there generally were no extra seats for our employees. A seat belt waiver was requested to allow more people on board each aircraft but it was not authorized. It took what seemed forever to convey the seriousness of the situation to the folks in Saigon. Finally, a waiver was granted and we were able to legally (at least by the company) add more people to the departing flights. Nevertheless, we still encountered difficulties getting company nonessential personnel and dependents on the airlifts. In fact, at one time I was told by a U.S. Consulate official that Air America® personnel had no right to ride on departing Air America® aircraft but rather should go by boat! With that comment a short discussion ensued, in which I threatened to shut down all Air America® flight operations. Our people were finally given appropriate consideration.

Just before dawn on the 26th, about 400 refugees from Quang Tri and Hue appeared on our ramp and informed me that they were waiting to go out on the airlift heading south which was now in full swing. They stated that they were given approval to come aboard the air base by the Base Security Officer. I managed to convince them to clear the ramp and they then set up camp outside our gate. As the airlift progressed, this crowd seemed to act as a catalyst and pretty soon was increased by thousand and they began breaking through the barriers we had erected to keep the ramp clear for arriving aircraft. Two Vietnamese Generals on the scene were asked to control the crowd but their only reply was that they were incapable of doing anything about the situation. I'm sure the only reason they were there was to make sure their families got out on the airlift.

Communications and coordination between my office and the OSA warehouse next door became increasingly difficult and reached the point where I was forced to literally take over all air operations functions. Games had to be played because the ramp was overrun with people. Aircraft were told to park at various areas of the field, passengers bussed out, etc. Finally the Consul General, Mr. Al Francis, attempted to appease the refugees by dedicating the next arriving 727 solely for their use if they would promise to maintain order. This gambit failed, with the result that on the 27th he called off the World Airways airlift. Attempts were still made by company aircraft, with marginal success. By this time the VNAF had compromised all our radio frequencies and as soon as an aircraft landed they would be hot on its heels with a caravan of vehicles loaded with their people.

An aside ... For some time I had requested that out Xray Bell 204's ( N registered Bell 204B's) which had small cabins and small fuel tanks with resulting short range, be replaced by our longer ranged Foxtrot models. Only one of three was replaced. This created problems later on with our ability to adequately perform certain missions. Very specific instructions from Saigon were given me regarding not utilizing the ICCS H model Bell ( which not only had greater range but also greater passenger carrying capability) for anything but official ICCS missions. In the end we had one ICCS H model, two X ray models and one Foxtrot model.

It was decided to cut operations personnel to the absolute minimum and keep only one pilot per aircraft and no Flight Attendants or Flight Mechanics, planning instead to utilize the Filipino ground mechanics who could do double duty and who also had good local contacts. It appeared that Saigon just didn't realize the seriousness of our situation despite many requests that replacement crews and cargo not be sent to Danang. There was no longer time to worry about complying with regulations. The crews present were asked to decide whether or not they wished to stay since I planned no relief after crews were designated. Terry Olson specifically requested to stay till the end and the other crews said they would stay if needed. Nevertheless, replacements and cargo continued to show up. Crews were simply loaded back aboard the aircraft and sent home, Unfortunately, this took up seats we could have used for other people having to leave. One night we worked until midnight unloading unneeded cargo so we could get passengers out first thing in the morning. All of this simply slowed down the airlift and clogged up our ramp.

Fuel was another vital consideration. I fully expected that should the situation deteriorate, Shell Oil would not be available to provide fuel and we obviously could expect little or no support from the military (This turned out to be so). A search was made for drummed fuel that we could cache away. None was readily available in Danang. Saigon seemed to have little interest in helping us out in this respect, instead referring us back to Shell in Danang, After many requests we finally received 12 empty drums from Saigon that were in such poor condition that only two were usable! We spent many nights searching for empty drums in the area and attempting to salvage them for our purposes. Some of the few we did finally manage to obtain were eventually put to good use. I was beginning to wonder if Saigon hadn't already been taken over by the other side!

The day after Quang Ngai fell, Captain Braithwaite was dispatched to Saigon with our fifth aircraft, an X ray model that had been replaced the day before by a Foxtrot model. With the loss of Quang Ngai, refueling became a major consideration for X ray models. Chu Lai was reported to be secure so it was scheduled as a refueling point to enable the aircraft to make it to Quin Nhon, the next available refueling site. Braithwaite's aircraft was loaded with evacuees and launched. As he attempted to refuel at Chu Lai, Unfriendly elements opened fire, wounding his Flight Attendant and one passenger. He managed to get airborne and return to Danang. Among other hits, one was taken in a rotor blade spar and another in the engine, requiring changes of both. By now it was apparent that the situation had reached a critical stage and the ARVN and VNAF were doing little or nothing to stem the unfriendly advances. Danang was becoming increasingly isolated.

We had one rotor blade in stock but required an engine from Saigon. A request was immediately sent out, but despite the arrival of several aircraft that day, (incidentally, all loaded with unneeded cargo) no engine showed up. Finally, late the following evening the replacement engine arrived. Much of that night was spent installing it and running FCF's (Functional Check Flights). It was again dispatched to Saigon the following day carrying some of the drummed fuel we had stashed away so it could bypass Chu Lai.

Despite the tremendous loss of territory surrounding Danang, the word from the powers that be was that there would definitely be a stand and the city would not be allowed to fall into enemy hands

On the night of the 26th, a number of late evening administrative flights were flown, the last aircraft landing after 8:00 PM. Shell had agreed to retain enough people to support us if we promised to evacuate them when the time came. However, on this evening, we ran into problems. Access to our camp by normal means was blocked off. The only way to get to it was by going to the end of the field and then up the taxiway. The tower refused Shell permission to do this. After much running around I decided to take the truck myself and drive it through, thinking the VNAF might be more willing to deal with an American. Unfortunately, in the meantime, the Shell driver left with the truck, driving it to their compound and locking it up. This left us with three aircraft in a low fuel state. Not a very desirable situation under the circumstances. After some significant negotiations with the VNAF, permission was given allowing us to refuel across the field at their refueling pits. At this we breathed a little easier.

On the 27th, the situation was relatively unchanged except that we had literally thousands of people camped out in our operating area. They weren't overly unruly but made it clear they would not leave until an aircraft took them away. Hundreds of people were also camping out in the OSA compound and travel between the two areas was almost impossible. That afternoon, after making some local administrative flights, one of the OSA customers got out of my aircraft and left his special radio behind. I decided to hold on to it.

All crews had now been instructed to spend the night at the field. Around 9:00 PM I attempted to go downtown and retrieve personal belongings as well as those of Captain Stergar who was back in the States on leave. Upon arrival at the gate I met some of the Filipino mechanics who had been spending the last few nights at the field and who had gone downtown to get some of their belongings. The gate was closed except for military traffic and the guards would not let them or their vehicles back on the base. I then walked out the gate and attempted to drive one of the vehicles in. This resulted in some heated discussions with the gate guards for almost an hour, finally terminating with the guards shooting into the air with their weapons indicating that discussions were ended. I got the picture. I parked the vehicle and attempted to walk back in, permission was refused. After another 30 minutes of discussions, they finally let me in but refused to allow the Filipinos entry. I instructed them to go to the company hostel downtown and spend the night. A VHF radio had been installed there for such a situation and they were to check in upon their safe arrival (the phone was no longer working). This was accomplished and they were advised to return to the base in the morning. If that were not possible, we made plans to pick them up at a prearranged spot by helicopter.

Around midnight a call was received from the hostel stating there was shooting in the neighborhood and houses were being ransacked. The hostel was reputed to be the next target. Instructions were given for all personnel to leave and proceed down the block to the customer OSA motor pool which was considered secure. I attempted to contact Saigon with these latest developments, but no contact could be made.

For the last week I had been camping out in our administrative office. When I first came up to Danang, things were rather busy and I never bothered getting the safe combination form our Vietnamese accountant. Just the day before, Saigon had delivered that month's payroll and it was now sitting in the safe just opposite my cot. The accountant was off base and after the events of the evening I wished I had the combination should the accountant not be able to return to base. At approximately 2:00 AM the radio that I had "acquired" that day suddenly came alive. A voice, apparently that of the OSA Chief, Mr. Greeley, made a call instructing someone to get his people down to the docks immediately. A few more calls followed and finally the folks in the OSA warehouse next door were asked how many Americans they had at the base. The reply was "13". (It was obvious. This did not include us!) They were then told to get in a vehicle, leave the base immediately and go to the docks. I waited a short while for the expected call but when it became obvious that none would be forthcoming, called next door and asked what was going on. The answer was, "I don't know, except that we have been told to get off the base." I then asked what we were supposed to do. The reply was "do the best you can." When asked if that meant we were on our own, I received an answer in the affirmative. It was at this time that I sent a message to Saigon stating it appeared the end was imminent.

A short time later the OSA group returned saying the gates were closed and they would try in the morning when curfew was lifted at 6:00 AM, but that we should be alert that help might be needed from us! It was at this point that I roused the rest of our crews and other employees at the field, informing them preparations were being made to depart. That is, if the many people camped out on the ramp would let us.

The previous day the airstrip at Marble Mountain had been cleared of debris for possible contingency use and time distance planning had been accomplished for what appeared the only viable alternate destination after leaving Danang; Cu Le Re Island. This small volcanic looking island about 10 miles off the coast of Quant Ngai was only about a mile in diameter but was renowned for its garlic. It also had a small airstrip.

During the night, all our people surreptitiously carried minimal personnel belongings out to the helicopters. They then waited behind the hangar. It was planned to attempt departure just prior to first light when most folks would still be half asleep. All four aircraft would start up simultaneously and as soon as that happened our passengers would make a run for it and we would all depart...hopefully.

Fortunately, we had enough edge to accomplish just that; although by the time we were lifting off the crowd was heading for us enmasse and quite a few were hanging on the skids as we departed. Fog was just beginning to form. A C-46, almost over Danang, piloted by Captain Bill Shaver, was advised of the situation and asked to attempt a landing at Marble Mountain to pick up our passengers. It landed just prior to the runway being masked completely by fog.

Two more trips were made to the Air America® ramp in an attempt to police up any recognizable stragglers. This was difficult inasmuch as it was necessary to hover over what was not a panicky crowd and try to snatch up only those people we could identify. We were almost dragged down many times and naturally ended up with many people we didn't necessarily want. On the last try there appeared to be no one else to pick up save one of our utility men who kept running away whenever we hovered near him. The rotor downwash apparently frightened him more than the fear of being left behind. About this time some people in the crowd began firing at us and we were forced to depart.

While we were still hovering over the crowd looking for employees, mechanic Gil decided to tell me what was sitting inside our locked hangar. Apparently, the night before, the paymaster for the German Hospital came to our facility in one of their ambulances. I believe he was Filipino and a friend of the mechanics. He had the hospital payroll which was in excess of $250,000 with him in the ambulance. Apparently, due to all the commotion, he was unable to properly distribute the money. At the same time he was concerned about having that money with him for fear he would be held up. Thus, the ambulance and the money were locked up in our hangar overnight for sake keeping. It was still in the hangar as we hovered outside. I told Gil that under the circumstances he was welcome to got get it. I would let him off and come back to get him. He wisely demurred. It was funny how little money meant at a time lake that.

While en route to Marble Mountain with our load of evacuees, a call was received from our OSA "friends" requesting help since they could not get off the airfield. We were informed that they were being followed by a number of vehicles full of people whom they could not get away from. Instructions were given for them to reverse course and head for the tennis court area where we would rendezvous and attempt to pick them up before those following could catch up. This was accomplished and their pursuers were discouraged from getting aboard by a display of fire power on the part of our passengers. Everyone was deposited at Marble Mountain where the C-46 was still standing by. All was quiet at this strip and the C-46 departed after being fully loaded. It was reported some days later the "unfriendly pursuers" were actually indigenous OSA employees. What was most regrettable was that we could have gotten all of them out.

One by one, as we burned down to minimum fuel for the trip to Cu Le Re Island, the aircraft departed. Weather became very marginal, with 100-200 foot ceilings and ¼ mile visibility as we proceeded south. I followed the two Xray models since my ICCS "H" model had greater fuel capacity. Captain Carpenter, in 12F was the last to depart, being about 10 minutes behind me. For some reason he did not feel he could make it to the island because of the weather and returned to Marble Mountain where the weather was a little better. He made contact with a Volpar, which was able to land and pick him up.

The trip out to the island was tedious at best. With no navigational facilities, one had to fly strictly time, distance and heading, hoping the island would appear before we ran out of fuel. Fortunately, things worked out and shortly after arrival the weather cleared up and the Volpar was able to land and join us. It had enough fuel on board to enable us to top off one X Ray model. Captain Olson volunteered to accompany me back to Danang., in an attempt to find other personnel. We estimated about 1-=15 minutes time on station with our fuel load.

Upon arriving in the area we called the tower, and asked if they would give us some fuel. Their reply was, "No fuel for Americans." We persisted, telling them we were there to help Vietnamese and after much deliberation they consented. "But only us and no else." We topped off and attempted to recover 12F at Marble Mountain. It was still intact, however, in the pilot's haste to leave, he had failed to turn off the battery and everything was dead. Batteries were switched, 12F started, and subsequently refueled. In return for fuel, however, the tower required one aircraft to work for them hauling military personnel and their dependents from the airfield to Deep Water Pier where barges were docked for evacuation purposes.

During this time contact was made with the America Consul General, Mr. Francis, and I carried him to various places while he attempted to assist in evacuating additional people. While he was visiting the various command posts, we searched the area and located about 30 additional Air America® employees and their dependents who were trapped off base. They were deposited at the boat docks for further evacuation. As it began getting dark, the base fuel pits closed down (apparently out of fuel) and we had to depart. All attempts to get Mr. Francis to leave with us were fruitless since he had just received information that General Truong, who had the reputation as one of the toughest commanders in Vietnam and also one of the most arrogant, was purportedly planning to commit suicide. Francis felt it was his duty to prevent this from happening (I would have let him). We were asked to come back in the morning to pick him up if he hadn't already departed by boat at that time. We reluctantly departed for the island where we refueled and proceeded to Nha Trang for the night. Additional drummed fuel had been brought out to the island for our use.

Two Foxtrot models from Nha Trang were loaded with four drums of fuel each for an early morning departure the next day. Captain Goodwin accompanied me with Captains Olson and Coalson flying the other aircraft. There was to be a Volpar overhead to provide support and communications and a Caribou was to position additional fuel at the island.

Danang was a shambles when we arrived. Aircraft, tanks, trucks, etc., were abandoned all over the area. The aircraft apparently were out of fuel. But it appeared that many of the trucks and tanks had been driven into the ocean in an attempt to connect with boats and ships offshore. Rockets were impacting the airfield and small arms fire was received from all areas of the city. The Consulate was on fire. A Search was commenced for Mr. Francis with no success. Finally a large group of people were spotted in the French compound. A note was dropped to them asking the whereabouts of Francis and telling them to proceed to Landing Zone 48, which was the nearest landing area, if they wanted to be picked up. Shortly thereafter some vehicles departed the compound and headed for LZ 48. Upon arriving, they were turned back due to large crowds and small arms fire. They returned to the compound. Since there was not room to land, a low pass was made, snatching two Frenchmen on the skids. Quite a bit of fire was received from the area surrounding the compound as well as from the tanks that were outside the walls. The two evacuees had some interesting stories to relate regarding the previous night's happenings but had no knowledge of Francis' whereabouts. They were not overly concerned about the fate of their compatriot as who were left behind, saying. "We Frenchmen can get along with these people."

We eventually landed on a small sandbar in the middle of Danang harbor to hot refuel from the drummed fuel on board using had pumps. VNAF personnel were constantly calling upon us with their survival radios to pick them up. We were continuing our search over the city when suddenly a 727 was spotted turning base for landing. All frequencies, including Guard were tried in an attempt to make contact and warn them not to land. No response was received. The aircraft landed and stopped about three quarters of the way down the runway. It was immediately surrounded by troops and vehicles. (At this time few civilians could be seen at the Airfield. But there were thousand of military troops.) About five minutes later the pilots began speaking with the tower. Only at that time did the crew finally acknowledge our transmissions. They had apparently been reading us all along but chose not to answer.

This was a World Airways aircraft with the President, Ed Daly, on board. They had apparently been refused permission to take off from Saigon but did so anyway. In what appeared to be a grandstand play, they had their traffic manager and a UP photographer on board who was supposed to record this "life saving" mission. When asked what they were doing, the crew responded, "You wouldn't believe us is we told you." My reply was that they better take off and get out right away if they could. No response. They then taxied to the north end of runway 17 Left and were again surrounded. By now the runway was littered with bodies of overturned vehicles. I suggested they go to 17 Right and take off as it was relatively open although there was still some sporadic incoming in the area. A noncommittal response was again given. About this time I gave up hope of their getting off the ground and was trying to figure out how we could possibly pull them out by helicopter. It looked hopeless.

Suddenly a panicked American voice came up on the radio from the tower. He identified himself as Joe Rizzo and screamed for someone to save him. More problems! With this the 727 taxied down the runway, across to the taxiway in front of the tower and stopped. About 20-30 seconds passed at which time I informed them that both runways were now unusable and their only chance was to take off on the taxiway from where they were. "We think you'' right" was heard from the 727 and with that they began a takeoff from midfield on the taxiway. As it started rolling it narrowly missed a stalled van on the side of the taxiway but a motorcycle coming from the opposite direction smashed into the aircraft, hurling its driver into the infield. It was still on the ground as it ran off the end of the taxiway but somehow became airborne after blowing through several small structures a the end of the field.

It was some time after they took off before we could get a report if Rizzo had made it on board or not. Finally, they called saying he was on board. However, it seemed the UP photographer had been left behind and we were asked to pick him up. But where...and how? Small arms fire was again picking up as we let down in an effort to spot this individual. Finally, the photographer made it to the tower and began calling for help. He was instructed to go to the far end of the field which was relatively deserted at the time. We would try to make a pickup there. He departed and the Vietnamese tower operator kept us appraised of his progress until he was out of his sight. The tower operator pleaded with us to save the photographer, saying we were his only chance of getting out. We made a low level run to see if we could spot our man. He was found between runways closely followed by six soldiers, all of whom got on board with him. The tower operator thanked us profusely and then asked us for a favor. If we could pick up his wife and children, he would stay behind until his "last dying breath." We couldn't refuse a a request like that under the circumstances so Olson and Coalson, who had more room, effected a rendezvous and picked up a group of people, which fortunately included the tower operator's family.

By this time we were at minimum fuel and had to leave for Cu Le Re Island. After almost five hours in the Danang area, contact was finally made with our (?) Volpar. Apparently, the customer at Nha Trang had a better use for it and had dispatched it on a courier run to Can Tho, south of Saigon, instead. It had just been released to support us? The pilot relayed that Mr. Francis was on a boat in the harbor and we were to pick him up. At this particular point in time that was impossible due to our fuel state and passenger load. Since it appeared he was safe aboard a ship, we felt our job was done. We refueled at the island and arrived in Nha Trang about 9:30 PM.


During this entire operation we were plagues by what seemed to be a lack of urgency on the part of the powers that be in Saigon. They probably couldn't believe what was happening. We couldn't either! However, what disturbed us more was the manner in which we were apparently viewed by the customers. Although I thought I had been taken into their confidence, it turned out I was not made privy to the overall evacuation program.

We were expected to provide all support to the customers, but our fate was apparently of no conern to them. Had we not been able to take off on the 28th, I wonder what support we would have gotten. I expect none.

On the brighter side, with few exceptions, all our personnel performed admirably. However, a small group of individuals went far beyond the normal call of duty. Without their efforts we wouldn'' have come close to accomplishing what was done. They are Captains T. Olson and T. Coalson; Mechanics J. Gil, B. Pacariem and B. Phee. Well done!